According to Jewish tradition, the entire Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy) , both written and oral, was dictated to Moses at Mount Sinai about 1500 BCE.
The Truth Is…
Today no serious biblical scholar (i.e. one who does biblical research without looking for “evidence”to support biblical doctrine) maintains that the Torah was dictated by God to Moses around 1500 BCE. None of those books were written by someone named Moses. Today, the majority of scholars agree that the Torah does not have a single author, and that its composition took place over centuries. In addition, modern scholars point out that there is no evidence that Hebrews were even able to write, nor any evidence of written Hebrew literature of any kind prior to the 10th Century BCE. True revelation can never be in disagreement with human reason and experience
The Documentary Hypothesis
The “Documentary Hypothesis” suggests that the five books were created c.450 BCE by combining four originally independent sources, known as
- the Jahwist, or J (about 900 BCE),
- the Elohist, or E (about 800 BCE),
- the Deuteronomist, or D, (about 600 BCE),
- and the Priestly source, or P (about 500 BCE).
In short, there are many people engaged in biblical scholarship who can demonstrate that the Torah is not the product of a single person, especially someone named Moses. The Documentary Hypothesis is quite scholarly and detailed and convincing to those who read it with an unbiased mind. It is not the point of this section to go into the detail required for an understanding of the Documentary. For a detailed explanation of the Documentary Hypothesis, click HERE.
Food for thought:
- Isn’t it strange that the name of the Pharaoh causing the Jews all of their problems is never named? Even today, we know the names of the Pharaohs back to the first dynasty. We suspect the offending pharaoh is never named because who ever wrote Exodus, long after the alleged events, had no clue as to the names of any of the Pharaohs. The bible can relate a genealogy 40 levels deep but can’t name the Pharaoh of Moses time?
- Isn’t it strange that a book written by Moses describes his own death and events that occurred after his death. .
- Isn’t it strange that in a book written by Moses, he still uses his name instead of the pronoun “I”. That is the text will say “And the LORD said unto Moses…”. Why doesn’t it say “And the LORD said unto ME…”? Or it will say “Moses and Aaron … “; why doesn’t Moses say “Arron and I …”?
- The phrase “…to this day” appears in many passages. “To this day” is not the phrase of someone describing a contemporary situation. It is rather the phrase of a later writer who is describing something that has happened in the past and endured “to this day”.