Why Free Will, Prayer and an Omnipotent God Are Mutually Exclusive

By Jeff Schwitzer,

Why Free Will, Prayer and an Omnipotent God Are Mutually Exclusive

Posted: 06/16/10 10:05 AM ET

Religious morality has maintained a powerful grip on the human psyche for two millennia through the concept of “free will.” Without the notion of free will granted by an omniscient and omnipotent god, humans would be automatons, doing god’s bidding with no choice. With no free will, all actions by all people would be a direct expression of god’s will. That would clearly pose a problem, with war atrocities, rape, torture, genocide, and the full repertoire of human debauchery reflecting poorly on the almighty. No religion would tolerate such a grim view of the creator, so there must be a way to reconcile the reality of ugly human behavior with an all-powerful, all-knowing god.

Here is the central dilemma: religion must somehow explain the existence of evil in the presence of god, an endeavor known as theodicy. Despite heroic efforts, all attempts at theodicy have failed completely. The bottom line is clear. In a world that knows evil, an all-powerful god responsible for all creation must be evil. That interpretation is unavoidable and certain. But given that many people will wish to dispute the claim, I will show next how no other conclusion is possible.

Some who oppose the notion of a brutish ugly deity propose that god did not intentionally create evil. If so, that begs the question of evil’s origin if not from the hand of god. In one scenario, god allowed evil to flourish as an unintended consequence once his newly-minted Adam and Eve started roaming the earth; in another, evil sprang to life without god’s permission, as a rude cosmic surprise. Both scenarios would give god a pass on being evil, but would at the same time mean he was not omnipotent. None of the three scenarios is looking too good for the big guy. Let’s review: in the first case, an all-powerful god must be evil since evil exists and god created all, including evil; in the second case, god’s work got beyond his control, a mistake not typically associated with an all-powerful thing; in the third case, god not only does not control our fate, he is incapable of peering into the future, a decidedly un-god-like attribute.

Religion solves this conundrum the old-fashioned way: by making up an answer with truly contorted logic. The answer in this case is free will, but only for human beings.Somehow, when god gathered his last strength to make people, before taking a one-day vacation, he decided, unlike with beavers or parrots, to give his new creation the ability to choose a path not preordained by god. This divine grant of free will solves the dilemma because people can choose to be evil without implicating god. Whew!

The idea does not hold water. Even the briefest examination lays waste to the claim that free will was or could be granted by an all-powerful god.

We can start with prayer. If god has a plan for everything and everyone, prayer could not affect his behavior. If he changed his plan according to a prayer, that would be an admission that god’s original plan was flawed, making him fallible. If only those prayers that fit into god’s original plan are answered, then the purpose of praying is defeated. With preordained fate, prayer could not change any outcome, which is the very purpose of a prayer.

“Ah-ha!” you might say. “The trick is that god gave mankind free will — that allows for the legitimacy of prayer.” But prayer cannot work in the case of free will, either. If we have the power to choose our own destiny, prayer has no role to play.If I pray to god for a certain outcome, just the act of praying is an admission that I do not determine my fate; I admit my fate is in the hands of god, that god can change the outcome of my life, making the notion of free will moot. The idea of free will is religion’s version of having your cake and eating it, too. You can have a god who already preordained everything, and you can pray for a different outcome anyway, and you have free will to change your destiny. The wishful thinking that a pastry can be consumed without being depleted is no more viable than the notion that free will and prayer are compatible.

An argument often provided to counter this line of reasoning says that god knows what every person will choose beforehand, but the person does not; the person is still making a choice. How oddly tautological. Whatever we choose, our choice is according to god’s plan because we chose it! But if god already knows what we will choose, already knows the outcome of every choice, that is not free will, only the cruel illusion of free will. The choice was already made at the beginning of time, meaning there never was any choice.

Another common argument is that free will allowed humans to fall from god’s grace, without impugning god’s character. That is simply defining away the problem without solving anything. If god is all-powerful, he could have created a species of humans who chose to use the gift of free will only for good. That his creations chose to behave badly means that such behavior was either god’s original intent, or that god is not all-knowing.

Perhaps a benevolent god created a world with evil, but he chose to do so for good reasons. He created evil but is not evil himself. Assuming this logic, some argue that evil and suffering are necessary in order to know god. Well, that is simply another example of solving the problem by defining it away, and ultimately contributes nothing. Since god is all-powerful, he could have just as easily designed the world such that suffering was not required to know him.

Let’s look at a real case of evil, that of Slobodan Milošević and his choice of genocide: only three scenarios are possible.

  • One, god knew beforehand the choice Milošević would make and did nothing to prevent the outcome;
  • two, god knew beforehand but could do nothing to change the outcome; or
  • three, god did not know what choice Milošević would make.

From these three possibilities we must come to a conclusion that is irrefutable, undeniable, and logically immune to any counterargument. In a world in which evil and suffering exist, god is either all-powerful and is responsible for that evil and suffering, through design or neglect, or god is benevolent but not all-powerful.

Nothing else is possible, other than the obvious conclusion that god does not exit. With evil in the world, an all-powerful god cannot be benevolent. Whether god’s power is diminished either as an original state of being or as a consequence of voluntarily relinquishing his power to human free will, the effect is the same. If god is benevolent and not culpable of evil, he has no control over evil. If god is not evil, he cannot alter our fate.

No amount of twisted or convoluted logic can change that immutable conclusion. Saying “God works in mysterious ways” or “We are humble enough to admit that we will never understand god” just do not cut it.

That conclusion yields an obvious and terminal problem for prayer. If your baby is seriously ill, you pray to god for her recovery. Why? If god is all-powerful, he would already know the fate of your baby, and your prayers would be for naught. Whether you prayed or not, your baby’s fate is already sealed, pre-ordained, for better or worse, by the all-powerful god. Plus, since an all-powerful god must be evil, since he is responsible for everything in the universe, including evil, he might take joy in your suffering, since he allowed so much grief to visit the human condition long before your child became ill.

Alternatively, if god is benevolent, he is not responsible for the evil and suffering in the world, meaning he has diminished powers since forces exist in the universe for which he has no responsibility and no hand in their creation. You would be praying to a being without the ability to control human fate, rendering the prayer useless. If god has no control over evil, praying to him to stop evil and suffering makes no sense. Prayers to an all-powerful and evil god are futile; prayers to a benevolent god are useless. You might as well pray to the tooth fairy. At least with the tooth fairy you get a dollar under the pillow.

The flip-side of human free will is also important to examine; that is, does god himself have free will? If not, can god grant what he himself does not have? An all-powerful god is all-knowing, meaning god knows all of his future actions, and all of the choices he would make. Here is the rub: god could not change those choices, otherwise his earlier knowledge would have been wrong, meaning god would not be all-knowing! All-omniscient god therefore has no free will to choose actions, since all actions must be preordained. God becomes an observer of his own omniscience since all knowledge of the future precludes any changes to that future. Any god with free will would have to be imperfect, and would by definition not be all-knowing.

So an all-knowing god, who cannot possess free will, cannot grant something he himself does not have. But a bigger problem remains. Free will implies a future with no predestination. A god who knows all, about everything past, present, and future, could not create any free will that would prevent that knowledge of the future; the very act of creating free will would destroy the fact of omniscience.

The notion that an all-powerful god granted humans free will is one of the most egregious examples of religion’s absurdity. But the situation becomes positively surreal when people believe that praying to an all-powerful god can alter the outcome of events according to the entreaties of the prayer. Holding three mutually exclusive ideas at the same time is a sign of insanity.

Follow Jeff Schweitzer on Twitter: www.twitter.com/JeAffSchweitzer


Suppose you and I have been good friends all our lives, love each other even. In fact, our bonds are so strong that I am your 13 year old daughter’s Godparent.

Now suppose that I am walking on a trail through the woods near your house and I hear her screaming. I immediately search for her only to find her being raped. She sees me and cries out “Oh Truthsayer, help me”. I go up to her, look her in the eye and say, with much love in my voice, say, “Oh…. I’m so sorry, I can’t help you. I can’t interfere with this rapist’s free will”.

Would you still love me after that?

You still love God after he allows all forms of evil even though he could have made people such that the idea of being evil never even came into their minds?

And finally the classic Epicurean Paradox:

If God is all powerful, he cannot be all good.' Why? - Quora

11 comments on “Why Free Will, Prayer and an Omnipotent God Are Mutually Exclusive

  1. Odds Bodkins says:

    Free will and prophecy are also at odds with each other. If a prophetic event must take place in the future then every decision every person makes in the present time is predetermined in order for the prophecy to be fulfilled, Free will can’t exist. It’s a little like a backwards butterfly effect. Prophecy and free will cannot coexist.

  2. richard says:

    There is no free will: see spinoza and mark twain (what is man) for example.
    As you say, the concept of free will is just a get out clause for religion.

    • Ken says:

      Where is the freewill for children born with birth defects or mentally retarted,are they free to get a college degree,elephant man free to choose be a bodybuilder

  3. Dennis Hoppe says:

    For a completely different perspective read the works of Henry T. Laurency, “The Knowledge of Reality” and “The Philosophers Stone”. A good primer before reading these books is the 129 page work called “The Explanation”, by Lars Adelskogh. These publications completely refute most of the writings in the Bible but from a different perspective. They are available for free at: The Official Website of the Henry T. Laurency Publishing Foundation”.

  4. Anny says:

    Thank your for posting this! I used to be a Christian, but over the years, what you wrote became clear to me more and more, until I finally decided it was time to give up on my silly superstition.
    But, it is not easy to do so. It’s nice to think saying a prayer before something to some invisible God that has your best interest in mind will affect the outcome in your favor. It is not easy for people to give up their superstition, no matter how intelligent they are in some cases. I am educated and fairly intelligent, yet it took me close to 5 years to give up on mine.
    I think maybe some people need religion to get through life, even if it isn’t the truth.

  5. Nimesh Patel says:

    I will pray for you and the website owner. God loves you and you must accept his free gift of eternal life. Or else you will suffer in eternal damnation.

    • Thank God you are going to pray for me. What are you going to pray for? How soon can I expect results?

      Let me get this straight. God LOVES me but if I don’t accept his “free gift”, he is going to torture me for eternity? Is that the way you treat those you love?

      • The Village Idiot says:

        Supreme TruthSayer: I now know that you have never read the Bible and/or the Scripture. A note before I continue… these are my opinions and/or “line-of-reasoning”; yours truly THE VILLAGE IDIOT. Here is what the creator says in the Scriptures (and your bible): Isa 45:7 “forming light and creating darkness, making peace and creating evil. I, do all these.” That’s our Creator speaking, by the way. So there you have it. The Creator is not your preacher nor your neighbor nor your mother and is not your friend either. Unless you want to make it. (I had nothing to do in this department. But if I were you I would start reading the scriptures if that is your intent; which I doubt. Call it a hunch!). For the looks of it, he put you in this world and it is up to you to make the best of it. And; please, don’t use man’s logic to prove that he owes you something. LET ME SAID IT AGAIN… HE OWES YOU ABSOLUTELY NOTHING! If there is anyone owing something to anybody else is us. At least you could show him that you are grateful. Something lacking in your heart for what I have read so far. He is the creator of everything. You were not there when he created the universe. Oh, you say that he didn’t ask you… grow up and wipe your OWN ASS. Stop been a cry baby. By the way, have you read IYOB’s book. Iyob was there a lot earlier than you and he got the same response I am giving you; and from the creator none the less.
        For a while I thought you were an ignorant now I am positively sure you are and IDIOT! I now that reflects on me. But sometimes you got to call them as you see them. Welcome to my group.

        Signed by: The Village Idiot

        P.S. If you ever want to discuss logic, lets do it based on the works like Bertrand Russell or the likes. Or about sciences. Le start by defining it properly; not the Merriam Webster style. Defining science in your own words.

    • Ocindi says:

      Why would I want to worship a god who would let me suffer in eternal damnation?

  6. Little Bird says:

    The hands of men wrote the bible/scriptures making it by default secular. This is a oxymoron in the religious community,.. rebutted with the peter pan reasoning of,”it was inspired by god through man making it… gods word.” this type of illogical reasoning is littered through out religious perspectives,…circular logic and out right made up dodges.

  7. Ngomes says:

    So true words I was looking for about such stupidity christians tend to think helps them. They speak of proof of god and point to the stars but yet no god. I want to see their god by them proving it yet it baffles me on how ignorance is their god called faith, myth, and beliefs.

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